Still in English…..on demand! The gastrointestinal tract and special nutrients……

June 9th, 2013 por

The gastrointestinal tract has a multitude of functions in addition to digestion. One important function is the ability to serve as a barrier against living organisms and antigens within the lumen; the so-called intestinal barrier function. The breakdown of this barrier may result in the crossing of viable bacteria and their products to mesenteric lymph nodes and more distant sites, a process known as bacterial translocation.

Increased intestinal permeability, bacterial translocation across the intestinal mucosa, and decreased mucosal integrity are associated with critical illness.  Loss of the gut mucosal barrier and subsequent translocation of bacteria from the gut have been implicated in the development of hypermetabolism, distant organ injury and sepsis.

The benefits of immune-modulating specific nutrients and formulas have been shown to up-regulate host immune responses, to modulate inflammatory responses, nitrogen balance and protein synthesis after injury. Although many of the current industrialized formulas contain a combination of arginine, n-3 fatty acids, glutamine, antioxidants, and nucleic acids, arginine per se has gained specific attention. Citrulline, as well as, glutamine are also important nutrients in such process. On the other hand, prebiotics and probiotics have also been used in order to enhance gastrointestinal function.

Arginine is a conditionally essential amino acid that plays an important role in the transport, storage, and excretion of nitrogen and in the disposal of ammonia via the urea cycle. In catabolic states such as trauma and sepsis, arginine may become essential because of alterations in its metabolism. Besides being a major nitrogen carrier and a component of proteins, it is a precursor for the synthesis of molecules with enormous biological importance, including urea, ornithine, polyamines, nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, and many others. Arginine supplementation is effective in improving intestinal barrier function and vascular development. Pretreatment with arginine enhances survival and intestinal mucosal barrier function after intestinal mesenteric ischemia. Arginine-enriched diets protect gut mucosa from radiation-induced enteritis, as indicated by accelerated healing ability, as well as prevent bacterial translocation.

Citrulline, a conditionally essential, neutral and non-protein amino acid is produced by the intestine particularly from glutamine and degraded by the kidney to originate arginine. Therefore, it has been applied as a marker of intestinal and kidney function. Moreover, citrulline seems to regulate protein metabolism and urea production from arginine and to stimulate muscular synthesis. Because of its properties, citrulline can potentially replace arginine, thus avoiding the controversies associated with nitric oxide (NO) production after arginine supplementation. Under septic conditions, NO production seems to be associated with deleterious side effects such as vasodilatation and hypotension. Arginine levels decrease under catabolic states such as trauma and sepsis, thus arginine becomes essential to different processes such as wound healing, hormone production and immune response. However, high amounts of this amino acid are necessary to restore arginine levels in these critical situations, because of the degradation of arginine in the gastrointestinal tract and liver, which might trigger gastrointestinal discomfort.

Plasma glutamine levels have been shown to decrease by 58% after critical illness or injury and to remain decreased for up to three weeks.  This reduction could be caused by either increased consumption or insufficient production.In catabolic states, glutamine is released from muscle tissue to be the fuel source to the enterocytes and to rapidly dividing immune cells. Glutamine deficiency may impair lymphocyte and neutrophil function as well as lead to glutathione (GSH) depletion.  Thus, glutamine supplementation can potentially improve a variety of functions, including immune system effectiveness in fighting infection. Glutamine supplementation improves intestinal permeability in states of trauma, endotoxemia and ischemia/reperfusion.

There is substantial evidence to support the idea that the gut microbiota plays an important role in health and disease. A balanced microbiota protects the host against potentially pathogenic bacteria. The composition of the microbiota is unstable and may vary due to factors related to stressful states and medications; these factors can have deleterious effects.In these situations, the normal microbiota is rapidly replaced by an overgrowth of pathogenic organisms, and a simultaneous increase in mucosal barrier permeability is frequently observed.  Intestinal barrier dysfunction may provide an opportunity for the penetration of luminal antigens, like bacteria and their toxins; consequently, infectious complications are common. The translocation of bacteria and endotoxins across a leaky mucosa may be responsible for the release of systemic mediators and for the activation of immunologic cells that contribute to the development of systemic inflammation and multiple organ failure.

The beneficial effects of probiotics on the protection of gut mucosal dysfunction have been reported. Probiotic is defined as a ‘live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host.  On the other hand, prebiotics, non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of bacteria, are very effective in attenuating chronic inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or obesity. In addition, these natural products are able to prevent or arrest tumor development, acting on the intestinal microbiota as well as potentiating the immune response.

Pre-, pro-, and symbiotic (prebiotics and probiotics) administration has been shown to ameliorate the immune response in aging. In particular, administration of a symbiotic to free-living elderly was able to potentiate the release of interleukin-8, thus increasing neutrophils in the host, perhaps explaining the reduced frequency of winter infections in the elderly.

52 comentários para Still in English…..on demand! The gastrointestinal tract and special nutrients……

  1. bDUe2Lnbk comentou:

    62847 345302Hi there! I just wish to give an enormous thumbs up for the nice info you

  2. 646036 102443A truly interesting examine, I might not concur totally, but you do make some very valid points. 763683

  3. hack free download comentou:

    32018 568979Wow! This can be one specific of the most helpful blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Really Fantastic. I

  4. 652076 585916I enjoyed reading this a lot

  5. adulti comentou:

    767467 328470Thanks for the post. I like your writing style – I

  6. sex comentou:

    170297 161384Thank you for your really excellent details and feedback from you. car dealers in san jose 591045

  7. click for source comentou:

    475177 623139Does your blog have a contact page? I

  8. 31914 140966View the following tips less than and find to know how to observe this situation whilst you project your home business today. Earn money from home 585324

  9. 125547 161344Cool post thanks! We believe your articles are excellent and hope a lot more soon. We enjoy anything to do with word games/word play. 632983

  10. 158233 411544Yay google is my king assisted me to locate this outstanding web site! . 841477

  11. google bom comentou:

    360131 148836Yeah bookmaking this wasn

  12. 664370 738158Now we know who the ssebnile one is here. Fantastic post! 497312

  13. 336703 467521Its outstanding as your other posts : D, regards for posting . 290949

  14. bali yoga retreats comentou:

    48367 945926i always enjoy to do blog hopping and i stumbled upon your blog .

  15. 445295 520966Wow! This can be one particular of the most useful blogs We have ever arrive across on this subject. Actually Great. I

  16. 271341 42158I likewise conceive so , perfectly written post! . 622596

  17. 734119 114677some genuinely choice content material on this internet web site , saved to my bookmarks . 159266

  18. gasbeton comentou:

    576242 545382Wohh just what I was searching for, appreciate it for putting up. 862122

  19. 989795 35244I like this web site very much, Its a really nice post to read and get info . 667084

  20. 266065 798363Basically wanna input on couple of common items, The internet site layout is perfect, the articles is genuinely very good : D. 203341

  21. Virus Removal comentou:

    704519 197372Seriously extremely great contribution, I truly depend on up-dates of your stuff. 744852

  22. AutoMoneyApp.Com comentou:

    143405 469531This web page is known as a stroll-by for all the info you wished about this and didn

  23. gift ideas for mom comentou:

    991918 464745I observe there is plenty of spam on this weblog. Do you need assist cleaning them up? I might help among classes! 219780

  24. Encasing Decken comentou:

    16849 321720I believe other site proprietors need to take this internet web site as an example , really clean and wonderful user genial style . 615016

  25. 260753 643175I need to have to admit that that is 1 amazing insight. It surely gives a company the opportunity to have in about the ground floor and genuinely take part in producing a thing particular and tailored to their needs. 383358

  26. 2015 millionaire comentou:

    786774 542850Yeah bookmaking this wasn

  27. Gerard Walsh comentou:

    21244 168836quite good publish, i surely really like this internet internet site, maintain on it 512029

  28. 988133 536484Hello there, just became alert to your blog via Google, and discovered that it

  29. 592333 476766I was looking at some of your articles on this site and I believe this internet site is really instructive! Keep on posting . 820836

  30. leadgeneration comentou:

    990880 926918Safest messages, or a toasts. are usually launched at one point during the wedding but are likely to just be hilarious, humorous to unusual as nicely. greatest man jokes 125097

  31. PA speeding ticket comentou:

    442475 418674Some genuinely good stuff on this internet web site , I it. 790369

  32. 412209 594992Fantastic post man, keep the nice work, just shared this with my friendz 894632

  33. 480036 160072Hi my loved one! I wish to say that this post is incredible, fantastic written and come with almost all essential infos. I would like to see much more posts like this . 232644

  34. 884707 628139I discovered your weblog web site on google and appearance several of your early posts. Maintain up the superb operate. I just extra the RSS feed to my MSN News Reader. Searching for forward to reading a lot more on your part later on!

  35. click here comentou:

    582953 64601Hi. Thank you for generating this website . I m working on betting online niche and have discovered this website utilizing search on bing . Will probably be certain to look much more of your content . Gracias , see ya. :S 580486

  36. 590216 348787I

  37. click comentou:

    284106 725299Come across back yard garden unusual periods of one

  38. 487585 670117Glad to be 1 of several visitants on this awesome web site : D. 193613

  39. buy backlinks seo comentou:

    60983 925763There is clearly a good deal to know about this. I feel you produced various very good points in attributes also. 932775

  40. 391474 355287Hi. Cool post. There

  41. 975658 782808You created some decent points there. I looked online for that difficulty and located many people goes coupled with with all your site. 685658

  42. buy backlinks comentou:

    432453 71110Reading, watching movies or plays, or comparable activities that may bring inspiration. 141333

  43. buy backlinks comentou:

    453643 115655I undoubtedly did not realize that. Learnt something new proper now! Thanks for that. 511744

  44. roofing services comentou:

    680779 701677Aw, this really is an extremely good post. In thought I would like to put in location writing like this moreover – spending time and actual effort to create a excellent article

  45. 772266 195636quite good post, i surely enjoy this remarkable internet site, persist in it 857898

  46. offices rent comentou:

    180067 821869A weblog like yours need to be earning significantly funds from adsense..-.,

  47. 168473 240154I see your point, and I totally appreciate your article. For what its worth I will tell all my friends about it, quite resourceful. Later. 902766

  48. 865784 896671I like this post very much. I will definitely be back. Hope that I can go through more insightful posts then. Will likely be sharing your wisdom with all of my friends! 415274

  49. 842140 481265I truly treasure your piece of work, Fantastic post. CHECK ME OUT BY CLICKING MY NAME!!! 980584

  50. more comentou:

    965266 978241It is difficult to get knowledgeable folks within this subject, nonetheless, you appear to be guess what happens you are dealing with! Thanks 6724

  51. 755803 579645Yay google is my king assisted me to locate this outstanding site ! . 225216

  52. corburt erilio comentou:

    Those are yours alright! . We at least need to get these people stealing images to start blogging! They probably just did a image search and grabbed them. They look good though!

    http://www.corburterilio.com/

Deixe um Comentário

Seu email não será publicado.

*

* Copy This Password *

* Type Or Paste Password Here *